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What is renewable energy?

Renewable energy comes from natural sources that replace themselves more quickly than they are used up. Examples of such sources that are continuously replenished are the sun and the wind. There are many different types of renewable energy available to us.

On the other hand, non-renewable fossil fuels like coal, oil, and gas require hundreds of millions of years to create. When fossil fuels are used to create energy, they emit dangerous greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide.

More emissions are produced by burning fossil fuels than by producing electricity from renewable sources. The key to solving the climate catastrophe is switching from fossil fuels, which now produce most emissions, to renewable energy. In most nations, renewables are now more affordable and create three times as many jobs as fossil fuels.

Here are a few common sources of renewable energy:


The most plentiful source of energy is solar energy, which may even be used under cloudy conditions. The rate at which the Earth absorbs solar energy is around 10,000 times higher than the rate at which people use energy.

For a wide range of applications, solar systems can provide heat, cooling, natural lighting, power, and fuels. Solar technologies can use photovoltaic panels or solar radiation-concentrating mirrors to turn sunlight into electrical energy.

Although not all nations have the same access to solar energy, direct solar energy can nevertheless make a major contribution to any nation's energy mix.

Solar panels are now not only affordable, but frequently the cheapest source of electricity thanks to a sharp decline in the cost of solar panel manufacturing over the past ten years. Solar panels come in a variety of shades depending on the type of material used in their manufacture and have an average lifespan of 30 years.


Using enormous wind turbines that are installed on land (onshore), in saltwater, or freshwater, wind energy captures the kinetic energy of flowing air (offshore). Although wind energy has been used for thousands of years, onshore and offshore wind energy technology have advanced recently to maximize the amount of electricity produced, using higher turbines and bigger rotor diameters.

Despite the fact that average wind speeds vary greatly from place to place, most locations of the world have the potential for considerable wind energy deployment. In fact, the technical potential for wind energy is more than the global power production.

Strong winds can be found in many locations around the world, but often distant areas are the greatest for producing wind energy. Offshore wind energy has a lot of potential.


Geothermal energy makes use of the thermal energy that is available from the Earth's interior. Geothermal reservoirs can be heated using wells or other methods.

Hydrothermal reservoirs are those that are naturally sufficiently hot and permeable, whereas enhanced geothermal systems are those that are naturally adequately hot but improved by hydraulic stimulation.

Different temperature fluids can be used to produce electricity once they reach the surface. Since it has been in use for more than a century, the technology for producing energy from hydrothermal reservoirs is established, dependable, and mature.


The energy of water flowing from higher elevations to lower elevations is captured by hydropower. It can be produced by rivers and reservoirs. Run-of-river hydropower facilities rely on the river's available flow, whereas reservoir hydropower plants use water that has been stored in a reservoir.

In addition to supplying energy, hydropower reservoirs frequently serve as sources of drinking water, irrigation water, flood and drought control, navigation services, and energy.

The largest renewable energy source in the electricity sector at the moment is hydropower. It depends on relatively consistent rainfall patterns, which can be adversely affected by droughts brought on by climate change or by changes to ecosystems that affect rainfall patterns.


Ocean energy comes from processes that use the kinetic and thermal energy of the ocean's waves and currents to generate heat or electricity.

The development of ocean energy systems is still in its infancy, and several wave and tidal current prototypes are being investigated. Theoretically, ocean energy could easily provide all of the world's energy needs.


Bioenergy is made from various organic resources, known as biomass, including wood, charcoal, dung, and other manures for the production of heat and power, as well as agricultural crops for the creation of liquid biofuels. The majority of biomass is utilized by impoverished populations in developing nations in rural regions for cooking, lighting, and space heating.

Dedicated plants or trees, agricultural and forestry waste products, and diverse organic waste streams are all used in modern biomass systems.

When biomass is used for energy, greenhouse gas emissions are produced, although at a lesser rate than when fossil fuels like coal, oil, or gas are burned. However, given potential adverse environmental effects connected to significant

expansions in forest and bioenergy plantations, and the ensuing deforestation and land-use change, bioenergy should only be employed in limited applications.


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